Wastes Processing and Management
This work was undertaken by Dr. Michael Clarke in his capacity as the Business Development Manager for the Tecniskill Co-operation Group of Companies, Sydney Australia. The aim of the design/research project was to find a management system for wastes produced in major Asian resorts and small urban developments, where disposal by municipal authorities is not available or is inappropriate.
The first task of the project was to consider what wastes had to be considered and place those wastes in Waste Streams for management and processing.
1. Sewage - toilet flow, plus flow from specific other sources (eg. infirmary sinks). High BOD. High microbe pathogen potential, or potential for generation of dangerous microbes
Non-sewage Bathroom Solids: condoms in bathroom waste paper basket, lady's sanitary napkins, swabs with blood, used tissues, syringes, and anything else with human waste upon it. (The contents of other waste paper baskets from guests rooms may need to be considered under the category of n-s bathroom solids.)
2. Kitchen wastes, Grey water from washing-up, separated grease and oil (educational exercise). Moderate substrate load (BOD), low microbe pathogen potential - with good separation from incoming food.
3. Bathroom and laundry grey water. Low substrate load (BOD), low microbe pathogen potential. Much of the solids and BOD would be as detergent and soap.
4. Garden solids, roadway run-off, swimming pool discharge. Generally low substrate load (BOD), low microbe pathogen potential. Much of the solids and BOD would be as plant matter. Roadway run-off will contain oil, grease and rubber; these being awkward BOD to treat.
Processing - Incineration
Over the last decade, incineration has lost favour with some waste engineering specialists. M.E.T.T.S. and Tecniskill Co-operation still believe that it is a necessary inclusion in many waste management schemes. We do not look upon incineration as being a major waste processing method, but it is very useful in safely processing some 'nasty' materials. Processes that 'compete' with incineration, chemical and/or biological oxidation of wastes with moderate to high microbe pathogen potential is possible, but economically and logistically such systems are not suited for remote locations.
M.E.T.T.S. with Tecniskill Co-operation can offer incineration technology that will provide the highest environmental safeguards.
Water Management and Conservation
Many aspects of water management and conservation are involved in waste management. The ability to pay and the acceptance of capital costs and maintenance and operation costs will determine some choices in planning a waste management scheme. The availability and security of water supply, and the availability of waste water disposal options are major planning factor.
The most important factor however in many situations is however the human acceptance of using various 'levels of use' of processed waste water. The levels of use, being the applications to which the water is applied; these ranging from garden and dust suppression uses, to the drinking water. In the ASEAN region some social and customary mores dictate what is acceptable use. Hotels and resorts should be aware of the expectations of both guests and staff regarding water sourcing.
M.E.T.T.S. with Tecniskill Co-operation can supply water processing technology that will process water to any level of desired use, and guarantee the quality of water delivered by systems that have been installed. We can further design systems that would use grey water for toilet flushing, whilst provided high quality fully processed recycled water for swimming pool use. In consultation with clients, we will design and install a system that meets a clients needs, and take into account the expectations of both guests and staff regarding water sourcing.
Monitoring of the condition of all processed water is part of the proposed system. Water that is considered to be grey, and is used for horticultural purposes, needs to be monitored, since residuals from detergents and soaps can build up in soil and cause plant distress. Such water for instance is not recommended for internal gardens that cannot be 'flushed' by occasional rains.
The maintainability of the installed system in terms of corrosion, and unplanned solids sedimentation is assured. Modern non corrodible piping is recommended, whilst opportunities for blockages of pipes and ducts are reduced by careful system planing. The on-going operation and maintenance of the installed systems is facilitated by a training programme for the local engineering and maintenance staff.
A fuller discussion with flow-sheets is contained in the attached pages.
Click here to view the diagrams